What Measurement Setup is Required for SMP Characterizations in 4D Printing?

Rytis Mitkus and his team from the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany, demonstrated the 4D printing of conductive PLA (CPLA) into the SMP structure, which allows the SMP structure’s deformation to be activated by Joule heating using electric current. They detail the setup arrangement, measurement, and characterization required for this study in “4D printing electro-induced shape memory polymers,” Chapter 2 of “Smart Materials in Additive Manufacturing, Volume 2“.

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